Developing and Managing Products
14. Why are line extensions more common than new products?
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a) They are higher risk and more expensive.
b) They are guaranteed to succeed in the marketplace.
c) They are less expensive and lower-risk.
d) They require no market research.
e) Modifications to existing products are very easy.
15. Coca-Cola has expanded to Diet Coke, Cherry Coke, and Caffeine-free Coke, to name a few. These are examples of
a) product modifications.
b) functional modifications.
c) aesthetic modifications.
d) line extensions.
e) product lining.
16. A(n) ___________ is the development of a product that is closely related to one or more products in the existing product line but is designed specifically to meet somewhat different needs of customers.
a) product modification
b) line extension
c) quality modification
d) functional development
e) aesthetic extension
17. If the manufacturer of Cool Whip were to introduce an orange-flavored Cool Whip and still continue to produce all of its other Cool Whip products, this would be an example of
a) a brand extension.
b) line extension.
c) functional modification.
d) quality modification.
e) a new-to-the-world product.
18. __________ is the development of a product that is closely related to one or more products in a firm’s existing product line but is designed specifically to meet somewhat different customer needs.
a) Quality modification
b) Line extension
c) Aesthetic modification
d) Feature modification
e) Product mix modification
19. What is the primary distinction between a line extension and a product modification?
a) A product modification results in a completely new product while a line extension is simply changing an old product.
b) In both cases an existing product is altered, but the alteration is more dramatic with a product modification than it is with a line extension.
c) Line extensions are designed to better meet the needs of the existing market segment while product modifications target entirely new segments of the market.
d) With product modifications, the original product is replaced in the product line while both the old and the new products remain in the case of line extension.
e) Line extensions are strictly aesthetic changes to an existing product whereas product modifications consist of changes in quality and functionality.
20. In product modification, the first issue to consider is whether
a) existing customers can perceive that a product modification has been made.
b) the product is modifiable.
c) quality is modified.
d) modification will make the product more consistent with customers’ desires.
e) modification will provide greater satisfaction to the consumer.
21. In product modification, three conditions must be met to improve a firm’s product mix: the product must be modifiable, customers must be able to perceive that a modification has been made, and
a) modification should make the product more consistent with customers’ desires.
b) competing companies should not be aware of planned product modifications.
c) modification should change customers’ desires to provide greater satisfaction.
d) management must perceive the modification as a reasonable and necessary action.
e) production costs and materials needed should be limited.
22. Quality modifications are changes that relate to a product’s
a) dependability and durability.
b) effectiveness and versatility.
c) price and availability.
d) reliability and value.
e) value and durability.
23. Bauman Flooring found a supplier of very inexpensive fibers that could be used to produce low-grade carpeting at a very low cost. Because Bauman had been facing stiff competition in the medium-grade carpet industry, it started using the new material in all of its carpeting and reducing its prices. This is an example of a(n)
a) aesthetic modification.
b) line extension.
c) material adjustment.
d) functional modification.
e) quality modification.
24. Which of the following types of product modifications inevitably tend to cause firms to reduce costs in some of the organization?
25. Changes that affect a product’s versatility, effectiveness, convenience, or safety are called ___________ modifications.
26. Which of the following is the best example of a functional modification?
a) Campbell’s puts more of a higher-grade chicken in its classic chicken noodle soup.
b) A smoke alarm is modified to be more sensitive to smoke at farther distances.
c) Motorola uses a battery that allows its cell phones to charge back up more quickly.
d) The manufacturer of the primer and sealer, Kilz, introduces an odorless variety.
e) Friskies changes the ingredients in its cat food to a taste that is preferred by most cats.
27. Functional modifications usually require that the product be
a) less specific.
b) limited to its functions.
c) more appealing.
d) more technical.
28. When Conair adds an electrical component that automatically shuts off its curling irons when they have been left on for more than one hour. This improvement would best be classified as a(n)
a) brand extension.
b) product deletion.
c) aesthetic modification.
d) market extension.
e) functional modification.
29. Changes that affect the sensory appeal of a product by altering its taste, texture, sound, smell, or visual characteristics are called ___________ modifications.
30. Sony’s design of its new plasma television sets with smoked-glass control panel covers and other visual changes would be classified as a(n) ___________ modification.
c) product extension
31. The major drawback to using aesthetic modifications is
a) the cost of the modifications.
b) that the value of the modification is determined subjectively.
c) the need for redesign of the product.
d) a possible decrease in market share.
e) that there is no differentiation for the product in the market.
32. If Conway School Furniture Company provides standard primary school chairs in new colors to match the interiors of schools, this modification is most likely to be viewed as a(n) __________ modification.
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