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Marketing Research Paper

Marketing Research Paper

Nike Brand Equity

The world constantly changes and disparities, however, some top brands seem to keep their leadership position in their industry to this day. Strong brands are amazingly durable and have the ultimate ability to overcome many challenges. Either does Nike. Since its creation in 1971 in the USA, the Nike swoosh is still one of the world’s most valuable brand despite of the severe crises. Ranked at 26 on the list of Interbrand’s “Best Global Brands” in 2009 with a brand value at $13.2 billion dollars, up 4% from a value of $12.7 billion last year, Nike is the best among sports brand, left the big competitors, Adidas and Puma far behind (Interbrand report, 2009).

So how has Nike “got ahead and stayed ahead”?

This article will be employed Elliott and Percy’s structural framework of brand equity synthesis to investigate in four dimensions of Nike brand equity, namely: brand attitude (functional and emotional features), symbolic meaning, brand awareness and brand loyalty to draw the deposit picture of Nike brand equity in the sportswear industry.

About Nike

In 1962, inspired by athlete aspiration, Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight shook their hand to cofounded Blue Ribbon Sports, precursor of Nike. The initial business then was to distribute low-cost and high quality Japanese athletic shoes to American. Today, Nike not only designs and sells athletic shoes at every profitable market worldwide, but also operates in athletic apparel, sport equipment and subsidiary venture including Cole Haan, Converse Inc., Hurley International LLC, Nike Golf and Umbro Ltd (Nike report, 2009). Headquartered at Oregon, United States, Nike has been presented across more than 160 countries around the world targeting its primary market regions: United States, Europe, Asia Pacific and the Americas. Nike employs about 32,500 people as of May 31, 2008 (Datamonitor Research, 2009). By indirect or direct way, Nike touches “the lives of millions more with its innovative products that transform every sport into a winning battle” (Superbrands, 2002).

Nike customers

The decade ago, Bill Bowerman, the co-founder of Nike once said “If you have a body, you are an athlete” (Nike – company overview, 2010). This motto transmitted not only the whole brand characteristics but also the main targeted customers. They are athletes and anyone with a body.

Nike offers a wide product portfolio of sport-inspired lifestyle apparel, accessories and equipment. Nike provides athletic footwear for runners, trainers and basketball players. The company also offers shoes and equipments specially designed for those addicted tennis and golf players and etcetera. Such diverse product extensions enable the company to satisfy the varied athletic needs of its customers (Datomonitor Research, 2009)

Nike and its rivals

Sportswear has been a thriving market in recent years. According to the research “Global footwear: Industry profile” releasing by Datomonitor in 2009, the global footwear market generated total revenues of $ 196,617 million in 2008. Thus, Nike has experienced intense competition from the moment its first sporting shoes being introduced to their customers. Globally, this market is dominated by “the big three” – namely Nike, Adidas, and Puma (Sport+Markt Report, 2008; Keynote Report, 2010).


Adidas was truly the first sports company, it was founded in 1920. They once really blew in the decade of 70s and 80s. By the early 90s, Adidas realized itself forgotten in the back of game. In the 21st century, the brand has steadily affirmed its position and seems on renaissance. Adidas brand increased its value at 6%, ranked 62th on the list of Best Global Brands 2009 and continued to take the second largest sporting goods manufactures behind Nike (Interbrand, 2009)

The overall Adidas brand competes straightly and closely with Nike’s value proposition. Nike aims “To bring inspiration and innovation to every athlete in the world”, meanwhile, Adidas mission is “Improving every athlete’s performance through innovation”. The brand values of Adidas have been claimed that “authenticity, inspiration, honesty and commitment – are derived from sport.” (Datamonitor research, 2009)


Placed at 97th, Puma brand appeared at the first time on the Interbrand annual report. Interbrand analysts gave the positive compliments for Puma’s effort to compete against the big rivals. Through new design, co-branding and partnerships with celebrities and famous designers such as Alexander McQueen and Hussein Chalayan, Puma refreshes their brand image. The company defines its brand as the mixes of sport, lifestyle and fashion to increase its desirability (Puma report, 2009). The Puma brand differentiates itself from Nike by communicating “lifestyle driven style” with “active lifestyle” themes whereas Nike focusing on “performance driven style”.

Nike – brand equity

Having and holding customers is likely to be a competitive battle which each brand tries all efforts to win. They compete for functional attributes, distinctive services or innovative technologies (Aaker, 1991).

So what are emotional and functional benefits which Nike provides for their customers?

Functional and emotional features of the brand

Since Nike was set up by someone who has “a deep passion for athletics and running”, it should come no surprise that product is important. Products that are comfortable, “authentic, functionally innovative and uniquely designed” (Nike report, 1985). The innovative technology is considered as one of the defining dimensions of Nike’s brand identity and corporate culture.

The simple driving concept has led to some impressive innovations which is considered as one of the defining dimensions of Nike’s brand identity and corporate culture. The first highlight was Air cushioning, using pressurized gas to cushion impact and new materials such as Urathane, that was used first with the Air Max running shoes (Nike report, 1987). More recently, to obtain maximum performance, Nike Sport Research laboratory has discovered the innovative technology such as Shox, which are made mostly of rubber and “spring back adding more power to a runner’s stride” and Total 90 Concept, a range of equipment to help players perform over 90 minutes of a soccer match (Keller, 2008)

Such innovative technology which Nike has used has gained the strong hold in consumers’ perceptions. The research of Ross and Harradine (2004) focusing on relationship between young school children and branding, particularly sportswear shoes brands showed that children aged from 4 – 7 years old believed that these brands could improve their personal performance. “They do very fast shoes. They make you run faster”. They are also “comfortable and look good”, they added.

Clearly, functional benefit is the fundamental and classical features to communicate with customers. However, if Nike just provided high quality running shoes to enhance athletic performance”, Nike would not be strong brands. According to Aakers (1991), big brands need to be beyond the purely functional relationships. They should create a more strong emotional attachment with core consumers because “emotional benefits add richness and depth to the brand and the experience of owning and using the brand” (Aakers, 2009)

Guinn et al (p219, 2008) stated that Nike offers emotional benefits which are “the exhilaration of athletic performance excellence; feeling engaged, active, and healthy; exhilaration from admiring professional and college athletes as they perform wearing “your brand” – when they win, you win too”.

Associated brand with the top athletes, Nike tells story of brands which the main themes is “sportsmanship and unrelenting effort”. These are the story of Michael Jordan who won a record 10th scoring title and was selected as one of the 50 Greatest Players (NBA history, 2010) in American’s National basketball association championship. Lance Armstrong survived and won a second straight Tour de France while Tiger Woods completed the career Grand Slam, “ensuring his place in golf history at the age where most of us are still wondering what we will do when we grow up” (Nike report, 2000). The most three prominent athletes has generated the inspiration for young and next generation of athletes. Nike has succeeded to transfer their inspirations to every single purchaser. Wearing every pair of Nike shoes is to engage a passion for excellence and encourage to “do your own thing”. “Just do it” – the tagline could sum up all the greatest values of brand which is (Superbrands case study, 2002).

Symbolic meaning

Products are no longer just products, they move beyond the functional meanings. Nowadays, they are definitely social tools “serving as a means of communication between the individual and his significant references” (Grubb and Grathwohl, 1967 as cited by Banister and Hogg, 2003). Products are considered as a symbol of individuality and uniqueness, and also symbol of affiliation and social identification. It is particularly trued with the fashion brands. Fashion brands such as clothes, bags, shoes and etc satisfy opposing functions, both social identification and distinction among individuals (Banister & Hogg, 2003)

Nike must have understood the recipe well. The “Just do It” campaign in the early 1990s would be a perfect example. Losing ground to archrival Reebok which was quick initiative on designing “style”, “fashion” aerobics shoes in 1980s (Keller, 2008), Nike responded dramatically and forcefully by launching the “Just do it” campaign which was mainly focused on person wearing on products instead of product itself.

Heroes and hero worship was being built as the main themes of advertising. Celebrity endorsements such as Bo Jackson, John McEnroe and Michael Jordon appealed to the consumers’ sense of belonging and “hipness”. In other words, Americans consumers were convinced that “wearing for every part of your life was smart (the shoes are designed for comfort) and hip (everyone else is wearing them; you too can belong to this group)” (CFAR, 1998).

“Just Do It” campaign succeeded (Nike increased its share of the domestic sport shoe business after launching this campaign in America from 18 percent to 43 percent, regained the leader position) because it could fascinate customers in both separating ways. Wearing Nike as a self fulfilling image declaration – “if you are hip, you are probably wearing Nike”. But perhaps most importantly, it could create the desirable needs -“if you want to be hip, wear Nike” (CFAR, 1998).

Symbolic meanings of Nike brand are also tracked in the research on “Symbolic and functional positioning of brands” of Bhat and Reddy (1998). This study showed that Nike scored high on the prestige and personality expression scales (See Appendix). The findings of Hogg et al (1998) also support the success of attached the symbolic and emblematic meanings to sportswear brands. The youth showed facility in interpreting the symbolic meanings attached to the sports brands which were associated with the different sports stars (such as footballers, rugby players, athletes and tennis players) and with different sports (e.g. football and rugby.)

Brand Loyalty

Luring by “good shoe with innovative functionality” and athletic aspiration value, Nike has indeed come to “mind” and “heart” of its customers. By the mid of 1990s, 77 percent of male Americans from the age of 18 to 25 chose Nike as their “favourite shoe”, according to Rozanski et al (1999). The figure still remains stably despite of that “up” and “down” year Nike has been experience, gaining the high score of customer satisfaction at 79 percent rated by The American Customer Satisfaction Index Organization (2009).

It could be said that loyalty to the Nike brand is driven by many external and internal factors such as brands’ subjective and objective characteristics and loyalty building programs.

One visible example of creating innovative method to capture the strong relationships with Nike users is that creating, a social network site for foot ball fans. Launching quietly in the early 2006, the site became an instant hit, peaking at 7.5 million viewers when Nike showed Ronaldinho video clips, according to Nike (2006). More than 1 million members from 140 countries signed up by mid July. In this site, fans can create their personal blogs, build communities around favorite teams or players, download video and organize pickup games. By enrolling consumers in building and shaping the content of the website, Nike pulled their loyal customers closer, nurtured deeper bonds of loyalty and advocacy. (Kotler and Amstrong, 2007)

Brand Awareness

Brand awareness is the first and crucial stage of consumer’s preference. It refers to the strength of a brand’s presence in the consumers’ mind (Aakers, 1996). Nike has been successful in building awareness. The “Swoosh” symbol has been appeared everywhere, on shoes, hats, billboards and soccer balls across the globe too remarkably to such extent that one author used the title “The Swooshification of the World” on Sports Illustrated column that imaged a future in which the swoosh could surpass sports to become “a letter of the alphabet and the new presidential seal, among other things”(Keller, 2008). True be told, the recognition of the ‘swoosh’ is extremely high.

According to Keller (2008), as of 2000, 97 percent of American citizens recognized the brand logo, as the strong brand penetration. The studying of Arona and Stoner (2009) on understanding brand personality also assists this fact. The findings indicated that Nike was perceived as a “dominant force” or “authority” in the market place, reaching at nearly 90 percent (Figure below)

The results of Ross and Harradine’s research (2004) on brand recognition and awareness on children is also supportive, which showed that Nike could be recognized consistently without identification of brand name, even by the youngest group (aged from 4 to 6 years old). This perhaps may reflect the general level of advertising and promotion that children are exposed to.

How has Nike done to build brand awareness?

Sponsorships, advertising and experience focused retailing (Nike town) are three vivid channels that Nike has applied to enhance its brand image and awareness. Among these strategies, athlete endorsements could be considered as the most significant success of Nike brand.

Nike has been invested millions of dollars to associate their brand names with easily recognizable athletes with the aim of brand image building (1.6 billion dollars is spent on multiyear athlete endorsement by Nike according to Horrow (2007). Athletes at the top of their respective sport such as Micheal Jordan, Tiger Woods, and Lance Armstrong who are well – liked and respected by members of the brand’s target audience are chosen as endorsers to associate the Nike brand with the athlete’s celebrity image. This strategy has been paid off, for example, since Tiger Woods and Nike cooperated, annual sales for Nike Golf have exceeded to nearly $500 million dollars with an estimated 24 percent growth per year in the first five years of the agreement (Pike, 2006 cited by Carlson and Donavan, 2008).


Since the Nike name is chosen in 1971 with the concepts of victory, success and speed, Nike has been keeping its great speed in the fierce competitive environment. Building brand image and its associations around a famous person and conducting the two – way conversation with power consumers through innovative digital channels, Nike has hold the strong presence in the heart of consumers.

Marketing Research Paper Example 2

Integrated Marketing Communication

Necessity is the mother of all inventions, and Integrated Marketing Communication – IMC, is no exception. This new weapon in the lethal arsenal of the marketing strategies of the large global organizations is the latest innovative tool whose conception is rooted in the fiercely competitive nature of the global marketing scenario. It has necessitated the coming together of various promotional functions of an organization. These functions are marketing, sales, advertising and PR. “Integrated marketing communications is a way of looking at the whole marketing process from the viewpoint of the customer. It involves the coordination of all promotional activities…(REF03). In a conventional setup, these functions are considered separate departments and are accordingly managed separately. But the new-age global marketing model has transformed these functions radically. With the conventional marketing module, the defining areas of these functions often used to overlap with each other, thus creating friction, confusion and inefficiency both internally within the company and externally in the market.

This wasteful and inefficient way of orthodox marketing compelled the companies worldwide to rethink and restrategize their promotional communication efforts, and the nett result is IMC. Basically, it combines and fuses the inter-departmental marketing operations into a single homogenous function, thus creating a seamless environment where marketing, sales, advertising, PR and other such areas complement each other’s functioning rather than contradicting it. As noted in the insightful document titled “Integrated marketing Communications at Dow Chemical Company – IMC in Theory and Practice”, “Marketing integration provides companies with a competitive edge by focusing all of the sales, marketing and operations resources on promoting the same message throughout customer and prospector base and doing everything possible to make sure that sales and marketing promises get consistently delivered” (REF01).

The other unique salient benefits of IMC which are also mentioned in the above referred work are that besides creating functional harmony and enhancing field efficiency, it also greatly helps in two other areas:

1). IMC improves cost-effectiveness of the overall promotional effort in value terms. This has a direct and positive bearing on the expense-per-unit sale parameter, which ultimately reflects well in the balance sheet.

2). IMC gets far better rating on the result-orientation front, both at the boardroom level and field level. Further, since the hitherto separate areas of marketing, sales and advertising now function under the unified umbrella, they are no longer perceived as separate entities like distant cousins from a family tree, the company, but like triplets born of the same mother, the IMC. The keywords here are cohesiveness and coordination, which transform the unified marketing operation into a well-orchestrated symphony.

To put the IMC concept in a nut-shell perspective, it operates as a neat, compact and perfectly coordinated commando unit, whose mission is more often than not ambush marketing, a method that has become highly effective, if controversial, with the more ambitious amongst the contemporary companies.

Role of IMC in this coursework

This coursework has taken IMC as its base and opted for the modus operandi of illustration and demonstration to show how IMC produces a nett cohesive output in marketing. Firstly, to exemplify the effectiveness of IMC, an original object or example is created in the form of a print advertisement which is included in the appendix of this work. The simple logic behind this creation is that without an example, one would not be clear what to demonstrate; hence the example is used as a tool to make a point. Secondly, having created this example, the subsequent rationale defends how’s, what’s and why’s of this object.

The example

The print advertisement is supposed to have been prepared by an imaginary group of nursing homes for senior citizens including aged parents, and its target audience is the domesticated children of these aged parents. The backdrop scenario visualized for this work is that the restless, ambitious, go-getter type of son has no place for his parents in his life and family, so he has lodged them in a senior citizen’s nursing home since he thinks they are out of sync with his life and lifestyle, and are better off in a care giving center. Since he is the head of the family and is responsible for this conscious decision, the communication in the advertisement is targeted at him in the form of a persuasive, compelling dialogue between him and the care giving center.

The example is a conceptual personification of the broader contemporary scenario where a nuclear family is considered a role model at the cost of the elder family members like the parents.

Choice of subject

From the given choice, I have decided to opt for the above subject. Effectively, it is more of an issue rather than merely a subject. It concerns the complex nitty-gritty of juxtaposition of family life and work in the contemporary world where survival of the fittest is a stark reality. In this struggle for mere survival, a very crucial component of the family, that of the parents is getting dislodged and is wobbling wildly on the societal trajectory like a rocket gone haywire. Thus, the new-age family, under duress and pressure, has been vertically fissured, and the parents’ fragment is left out in the cold. It is to this fragmented nuclear family that the advertisement’s message is targeted. It urges in a compelling and evoking tone to fuse the fragments, to bring back the parents in the folds of the family and thus complete the family circle.

The choice of this issue is based on two challenging but exciting counts:

  • The subject is necessarily a social issue. Through its choice, it is attempted to apply the IMC model, which is largely perceived as a commercial, profit-centric marketing tool, to a non-commercial, non-profit social cause and hence prove that the role of IMC can and should be expanded to reach out to include the satellite marketing areas like social marketing. On this point, it would be apt to quote this observation by an industry expert, “Social marketing was “born” as a discipline in the 1970s, when Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman realized that the same marketing principles that were being used to sell products to consumers could be used to “sell” ideas, attitudes and behaviors” (REF02).
  • The brief on the subject says that the message should originate from a group of nursing homes for senior citizens and it should target not the elderly inmates, who would apparently seem to be the obvious target audience, but their children, who apparently seem less likely to be the target audience. By this clever positioning of the target audience, one gets to work on two layers, the primary target and the secondary target while crafting the message.

The creative rationale

In order to conceive, device, design and write the exemplified advertisement, in-depth and exhaustive consideration was given to various creative approaches and ultimately a simplistic, direct and uncomplicated communication was found to be the best, in-so-far as the visual and design matters were concerned, while the persuasive, guilt-generating, confrontationist and evoking nature of the communication was left to the textual content, which has emerged as the strength of the work.

Other important factors that were considered and incorporated in the work are:

Concept and catch-line

The concept of the advertisement revolves around two couples – the young couple and the old parental couple. Their merry pictures form the visual language of the work. Both couples are shown engaged in warm togetherness – the young couple during after-hours, probably on a weekend, the old couple during leisure hours. The attire is casual, the expressions genuinely affectionate. On their individual merits, the two snapshots represent ideal marital bliss, as if everything is fine the way it is, one family, two pictures, two couples. Two separate pictures, two separate couples. Then, a very simple merging effect is given to the two pictures that connote the profound symbolism of the noble intent of the work to merge the two couples and to complete the family picture. Based on this intent, the catch-line, which is sentenced very simply but very creatively, pronounces that both the couples are a part, not apart.

The couples’ age, which has a very crucial bearing on the concept and the evolution of the message, is set at 30+ for the young couple and 60+ for the parental couple, and is captioned prominently in the header, thus positioning the young couple, specially the husband and the son to whom the communication is directed, at exactly the middle of the timeline. This positioning is the soul of the creative concept and is shrewdly exploited to form the crux of the concluding paragraph, in which the son is evoked to travel thirty years back or forth in life and recall/imagine his position then. Could he have made it on his own as an infant, without his parents, and would he be able to make it on his own at 60+, without his children. Either way, he gets the point that the advertisement is trying to make.

The body text

The body text of the copy is devised in a fully persuasive and partly confrontationist manner. Both direct speech and indirect speech are juxtaposed to create an interesting and intriguing dialogue. The objective of the copy is to make the son realize of his wrongdoing by keeping his parents apart from the family, confront him on the matter, even push him to the wall, and ultimately inject a sense of guilt for his treatment towards his parents. To further the objective, he is reminded of the sacrifices and compromises that his parents would have presumably make in their lives to make his life.

In the second half, the limited role of the nursing home as a facilitator of shelter and service to the aged people is highlighted, and it is strongly put forward that a nursing home can never offer a home to the parents, which only the son can.

Finally, the copy makes an evocative end with the timeline transition idea applied on the son.

Emotionalization – A sure-shot winner

The issue is essentially emotional. It is further strengthened in the catch-line and the copy with top-up doses of a variety of emotions. First, a guilt feeling is induced in the son with queries that corner him and make him go on defensive. Then a sense of elf-realization is added to guilt when the dialogue takes a nostalgic turn and urges him to remember how his parents might have braved all sorts of odds to give him a good upbringing and quality education, due to which he is what he is today. In the final part, a measured dose of foreboding is added when the son is asked to visualize his hapless condition at 60+ if he is left out in the cold by his children, and it may be his turn to get lodged in a nursing home.

This mix of emotions creates a strong, heady appeal in the copy, the kind of appeal that is capable of changing mindsets with its impeccable convincing power.

The design

The design has various imperative visual factors that contribute to the overall effect and impact of the advertisement.

Large Visual area

The layout devotes almost 60% of the space to the visual area. This visual space attempts to achieve several objectives:

  • The large, roomy visual area makes the viewer stop, look and notice the advertisement in a clutter. Having noticed it, the viewer turns into a reader and reads the content, thus getting the full message.


  • To create two distinct vertical visual compartments housing a couple’s picture each, symbolizing a divided family.
  • Subsequently, to create one unified horizontal visual compartment housing both the couples’ pictures in it that symbolizes the intent of the advertisement to unify the two pictures, and the family.

Power of black

Black means darkness, bleakness, lack of light, lack of vision, lack of compassion. Black is predominantly a negative color. According to Native American Cherokee symbolism, black implies problems and death (REF06). By using black as a background color, it is deliberately sought to portray the negativity of a nuclear family; the subtle message that black conveys in this particular work is the selfishness and self-centeredness of the nuclear family in leaving out the elder couple in bleakness by not including them in the concept of a family.

But besides being negative, black is also a very powerful color. It stands out in the crowd. It is precisely due to this characteristic of black that it is used in the work. It grabs attention, it props up the visual area, and it makes the text stand out.

The above chapter concludes and completes the creative rationale which answers the how’s, what’s and why’s of the defense of the creative aspect of the advertisement. Considering that creativity is the soul of a good promotional effort, and unless such a work is creative, it will fail to achieve its objective; the creative rationale is presented in detail in this coursework.

Linking creative strategy with media strategy

An advertisement is not a painting or a sculpture. It is not art for art’s sake. It is not meant to be framed and to adorn the walls, but is expected to go out in the market and slog it out, to perform or to perish. “At some point in the marketing process, the work has to change from research and strategizing to actually going out and promoting a product or service to potential customers” (REF04).

As an extension of the advertising function of IMC, and also as a sequential next step after the creative stage in the advertising process, a sound media strategy ought to be formulated to bring out the best in the work in terms of exposure.

For this campaign, it is thought fit to recommend its repetitive releasing in uniform and regular bursts in related print medium. The segment would include magazines, periodicals, trade journals, segment-specific publications like newsletters and in-house journals, and the like.

The budget and release schedule should be decided with the consideration that this is an all-season campaign – families do not have a season to remain apart!

Corporate sponsorship

“Corporate sponsorship is a business relationship in which two entities exchange things of value, including a public display of support” (REF05). From Nikon to Nike, across the world, being a responsible corporate citizen is the prevailing norm. Today, every large organization worth its salt has a specially earmarked budget for public welfare spending. If Nikon is spending millions on wild life conservation, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation spends trillions on philanthropy.

So, it would be worthwhile for this imaginary group of nursing homes to scout for corporate sponsorship for it. Such a move, if successful, would serve several purposes:

  • It will spare the group from shelling out money from its limited resources.
  • Since corporates can create a liberal budget for the campaign, its demographic and geographic reach will expand, thus giving it more length and breadth.
  • Lastly but most importantly, a sponsorship by a large corporate is akin to adoption. This move would immediately put the campaign in impeccable lineage and gift it an air of social elitism. It will be in distinguished company and hence command more respect and attention from its peers.

Extra measures to expand the scope and reach of the campaign

As a sequel to the previous chapter, if the campaign does manage to get a good patron, it can make inroads in the transnational territory. Large corporates hate to do anything at a small level. It is generic to their philosophy to think big in whatever they do. So may be the case with the decision to release this campaign on a pan-European platform.

If such a scenario does materialize, the below mentioned innovative and novel releasing ideas can be incorporated in the media strategy. While doing so, it taken into account that the target base would now shift to the socially conscious corporate elite, like the frequent flier business traveler.

  • Release in in-flight reading material of major airlines with concentrated European traffic.
  • Publications of major airlines like their magazines
  • Publications targeted at and catering to Eurail, Eurolokshop and other such rapid transit systems
  • In-house reading material of star rated hotels
  • In-house publications of leisure activity entities


No idea or innovation is small enough to become big enough. All it requires is out-of-the-box thinking approach, vision and professionalism. The nursing home group too can think big and achieve big with its promotional effort based on the IMC model. Having done so, it should not find itself in a self-limiting bond and should go all out to scout for corporate sponsorship to promote their campaign. If they hit pay dirt, it would not be far-fetched for them to cross the boundaries of the UK in releasing the campaign to a pan-European target. If it can do so, it will truly become a borderless effort, just like the IMC.

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